Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Energy Econ 18: Brown outs in Metro Manila?

A friend, Rose, posted this in her fb wall yesterday,

I am totally pissed after hearing the news that Meralco will be implementing a rotating brownout tomorrow starting at 11am? Are they serious?? At the height of the heat we all suffer each day....they will implement THAT?! It's probably because all of these people thinking of this solution have not experience what it is to stew in the heat! I think before they implement this they should first themselves experience what ordinary Filipinos are experiencing each day! All this hullabaloo just so that this government and Meralco can justify what they've all along wanted to impose on the already burdened Filipinos! A P4 increase and more on our electric bill!

Rose's frustration is understandable. In many of our neighboring countries in Asia, they can put plenty of street lights even in less-populated cities because they have so much power supply. Here, we are still talking about brown outs, actual or imaginary.

The main problem here is in power generation (not enough new power plants, many ageing existing plants) and not in power distribution (Meralco, other electric cooperatives). During heavy storms, power interruption  can happen, problem with power transmission (NGCP) or distribution, if the storm would topple electrical towers and posts.

Rose added that  "this should have been addressed by the appropriate branch of government....and I am still not convinced enough that this is not just a scenario created by Meralco...and their friends in government to justify any increases in our electric bill!"

To summarize the situation:

(1) Immediate problem is high electricity prices and/or brown outs, actual or threats.
(2) This is caused by lack of new power plants; the old plants require more frequent maintenance or scheduled shutdowns, or they can easily conk out (unscheduled shutdowns).
(3) And this is caused by (3a) government bureaucratism (DOE, DENR, LGUs, etc) in giving or restricting new power plant permits, and (3b) environmental activism opposing cheap but stable power sources like coal, nuclear.

If one will check the monthly electricity bill, between 50-60% of it is due to generation charge (ie, going to power plants).

For people who remain pissed off with the electricity distribution utilities (DUs) or the electric cooperatives, there are two ways that people can get out of these DUs which, by political nature, are all monopolies (Meralco, Bataan Electric Coop, Cagayan Electric Coop, Cebu Electric Coop,...).

One is to have their own solar system, wind, etc in their homes and/or offices. This is expensive though.

Two is via "open access" which is also in the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001 (EPIRA). A village or an industrial zone can go direct to an electricity producer (say a small coal or solar or wind plant) for demands of less than 1 MW. This way, they can stop paying (a) transmission charge, (b) distribution charge, (c) supply charge, (d) systems loss charge, (e) universal charge, (f) lifeliine subsidy charge, (g) taxes and fees, plus another charge, I forget. So you see, there are about 9 different items in our monthly electricity bill, but people only see Meralco or the electric coop as the villain.

By going through the open access system, people will pay only (a) generation charge to the small power producer, and (b) wheeling charge, for the use of Meralco or other electric coops' electrical lines, from the power plant to the end-users (houses in a village, an industrial zone, a mall, etc.).

If one cannot do any of these two choices, another choice is to reduce electricity consumption by using more energy efficient lights and appliances; have more big and open windows with screen, to allow more sunlight and wind.

See also:

Tuesday, April 15, 2014

Business 360 17: Electricity and GDP Growth

* This is my article for Business 360, a monthly magazine published in Kathmandu, Nepal, April 2014 issue.

Electricity powers many economic activities in any society, from small shops that give jobs to micro entrepreneurs to cranes that build huge and tall buildings. Economies that rely more on human and animal power and energy tend to be very poor because of low productivity while those that use more machines that run on extensive electricity tend to be rich because of higher productivity.

Below is an illustration of how selected Asian economies have expanded their electricity use over two decades.

See the big jump in power use in just two decades by Vietnam (10.6x increase), China (5.8x), Maldives (4.6x), Indonesia (4x) and Thailand (3.2x). The other countries have a simple doubling of use, or even flat lined, like the case of Mongolia.

There have been several literatures that show the near causality between electricity use and economic growth. The next table further illustrates this point.

See the pattern and possible causality? In South East Asia, Singapore, Brunei and Malaysia are at the top in electricity consumption and they are also at the top in per capita GDP. At the bottom in both tables are Cambodia, Myanmar and Laos.

In North East Asia, at the bottom are China and Mongolia while the four economic dragons alternate each other at the top in both tables. And in South Asia, it is Maldives and Bhutan at the top, Bangladesh and Nepal at the bottom in both tables.

Of all the countries mentioned above, the electricity-poorest are Afghanistan and Nepal. Nepal’s electricity use in 2010 was just 1/10th of Bhutan consumption, 1/90th of Singapore, and 1/100th  of Taiwan and South Korea.

In the February 2013 issue of this magazine, this column wrote about “Addressing power shedding and rationing” in Nepal and these proposals were made:

One, facilitate and hasten more power imports from India especially those from coal power plants. Coal  is generally cheap and supply is stable. This will require building more transmission lines from India to Nepal.

Two, deregulate power rates. Let those who can afford to pay higher electricity rates in exchange for more stable supply do so, whether imported from India or locally produced. This will encourage faster construction of more power generation plants and transmission lines.

Three, privatize some power plants that produce more losses than revenues for the government, sell to private power companies in a competitive bidding. Such privatization should be coupled with industry deregulation, at least the power generation sector, to encourage more competition among various players.

Four, reduce the requirements, bureaucracies, taxes and fees for companies putting up new power generation plants and transmission lines.  Invite more power supply companies from many countries to enter Nepal and put up more power generation and transmission infrastructures over the medium- to long-term. 

Fifth, entertain the possibility of getting nuclear power as this is a cheap, stable and generally safe power source.

This column reiterates the above proposals once more. In addition, Nepal and other electricity-poor countries may consider using natural gas as this is also a cheap and stable power source. The shale gas revolution in the US, Europe and other Asian countries means that natural gas prices will stabilize or even decline either in the short or long term.

Regardless of the power source that investors will use for their power plants, government bureaucracies that hinder such initiative should be drastically reduced, as well as the taxes, fees and royalties that result in high electricity prices for businesses and households. 

See also:
Business 360 13: US Government Shutdown and Lessons for Asia, November 28, 2013 
Business 360 14: Middle Income Trap and Economic Freedom, January 02, 2014 

Business 360 15: How to Improve Economic Freedom in Asia, January 22, 2014 

Labor Econ 13: The Term 'Jobless Growth' is Wrong

* This is my article in last Friday.

The term "jobless growth" is wrong. Growth means more or additional output from (a) more workers and entrepreneurs employed, or (b) the same number of workers and entrepreneurs producing more from the same input (ie, higher productivity).

If (b) happens, then higher productivity people will create new jobs elsewhere -- additional nanny for the kids, eating outside more often, jobs for those in restos/bars/hotels.

Assuming that the same number of employed people, say 37 million, was recorded this year as last year, it does not mean exactly the same individuals. Some of the 37 M employed people last year are no longer working this year due to (a) retirement, (b) illness or injury, (c) pursue further studies or skills training, (d) on extended vacation or leave, (e) migrated abroad, (f) death, (g) other reasons.

If one would refer to the lack or absence of incremental increase in employment this year compared to last year, the more appropriate terms would be “job-replacing growth” or "productivity-enhanced growth".  Besides, such absence of increase in employment is temporary and may happen for only one year, two years at the most. The succeeding years, increase in employment should show up.

Where there is growth, there is job creation somewhere. But most of those jobs may be in the informal sector as people find it very costly, time consuming and very bureaucratic to go through all sorts of business registration, from barangay to sanitation permit to mayor's permit to DTI and BIR permit. Besides, there are less taxes to pay in the informal sector, like being an ambulant vendor, small sari-sari store, tricycle driver, etc.

Consider this: A furniture shop with 5 workers produced 1,000 units of tables and chairs last year. This year, the same 5 workers produced 1,100 units of tables and chairs. Output increased by 10 percent but there was no growth in employment for that company. Is that a "jobless growth"?

On the surface, yes, but look what happens to employment by workers and the entrepreneur of that shop: the workers must have gotten some salary increase (otherwise one or all of them might quit and go elsewhere where they can be given higher pay). Worker 1 may get a nanny for the kids, now he can afford to get one. Worker 2 may get a motorcycle, and that creates additional job in the motorcycle shop or repair shop, and so on.

“Jobless non-growth” is possible but “jobless growth” is not, it is an oxymoron and hence, is technically and theoretically wrong.

The persistent high unemployment + underemployment rates of about 24-25 percent is also cited as another example of “jobless growth. See previous discussion here, Why a rise in unemployment is not exactly bad.

There are two main reasons why a person is unemployed. One is that he is rejected due to under-qualification or over-qualification (may demand higher pay later on), and two, he chose not to be hired at a particular job description and pay. The first is involuntary unemployment, outside the control of the job applicant while the latter is considered as voluntary unemployment, within the control of the job applicant.

One news report last year, Lots of jobs for college grads, but do they want the work? cited, more than 40 percent of the unemployed college graduates cited ‘no job opening in field of specialization, no interest in getting a job, starting pay is low, and no job opening within the vicinity of residence.’ as reasons for unemployment.”

These are examples of the “voluntary unemployment” phenomenon. There are jobs available for many college graduates but they chose not to take those jobs, at least temporarily, hoping that a job related to their course, or a higher paying job, or a job near their house or city, would be available soon.

Here are more numbers, notice the high incidence of unemployment among college graduates.

Philippine unemployed by educational attainment, October Labor Force Surveys,  2006 to 2013

Source: National Statistics Office,

Other instances of voluntary unemployment are as follows:

a. Work is available at say P40,000 per month gross pay starting immediately, but a person chose to reject it, awaiting possible employment in another company that will give him P50,000 per month or higher.

b. Rejecting a good paying local job because the person is awaiting job placement or hiring abroad, he/she  wants to be ready to leave any day without the hassle of resignation, getting office clearance and related burdens.

c. Rejecting a good paying job in a far away city because the person wants to work nearby even at lower pay, and help ake care of young kids or sickly parents at the same time.

Most economic literatures analyzing the unemployment phenomenon focus on what the government should do to improve the employability of the population, the college graduates especially. The common  policy interventions and proposals are higher government spending in education from elementary to tertiary. The new law, K+12 education, mandatory kindergarten + 12 years in elementary and high school, or 13 years of schooling before a student can go to college is along this line of thinking.

Both voluntary and involuntary unemployment among college undergrads and graduates can be lowered  if these young people were trained for self-employment and entrepreneurship early on, and if government policies are more business friendly than they are now.

This means that government business permits and bureaucracies, business taxes and fees, both at the local and national government levels, should be reduced and/or made simpler.

The key to reduce unemployment and underemployment, whether voluntary or involuntary, is more entrepreneurship and more business competition. If people cannot be hired by others, let them employ themselves.  Government can help job creation by simply reducing its unnecessary intervention, bureaucratism and taxation.

See also:

Friday, April 11, 2014

Energy Econ 17: Brown outs in Mindanao, Thin Reserves in Luzon

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Earth Hour campaigners could be jumping with joy with this news. Up to six Earth Hours everyday in some areas of Mindanao, wow.

KIDAPAWAN CITY -- Power consumers in Cotabato City have been experiencing two to three rotating power interruptions due to limited power supply Cotabato Light and Power Company (Colight) had been getting from the National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP).

In North Cotabato, last year’s long hours of brownout could even go higher as Mindanao’s power supply deteriorates.

Kidapawan City and other service areas of the Cotabato Electric Cooperative (Cotelco) have been experiencing four to six hours power interruption every day since last week.

Lory Tan, Yeb Sano, Vince Perez and other leaders of WWF, the chief campaigner of Earth Hour, will deny of course that they are jumping with joy. But that is what they are campaigning, that power plants should come mainly from renewables like hydro, biomass, solar and wind.  If coming from dirty "non-renewables like coal and natural gas, they are unhappy because such energy sources contribute to "man-made/anthroogenic" global warming and climate change. The renewables on the other hand, help "save the planet."

Meanwhile, the anti-Meralco, anti-privatization of NPC hydro plants, or even anti-coal crusaders, cannot go full blast in their campaigns. Even if Meralco is not in Mindanao, even if the hydro plants are in the hands of government, even if coal power is very limited in Mindanao, brown outs, which are worse than power rate hikes, are happening.

In Luzon, even outside Meralco area (M.Manila, Cavite, Rizal, Bulacan), tight or low power reserves (only 200-300 MW instead of the relatively safe 600 MW) can mean rotating brown outs if just one power plant with 300 MW capacity will suddenly conk out. A small bearing gave way, which damaged the big bearings, which damaged other moving parts, and power supply is suddenly zero. These are parts of daily realities, that is why high reserves by base load plants, at least 600 MW, is important. 

Peak load plants like diesel can provide extra power of course (peak hours are usually 11am to 2pm weekdays, then 7-9pm). But diesel is expensive compared to coal, hydro or natural gas. So using diesel plants will mean higher generation charge, which constitutes between 50-60 percent of our monthly electricity bill. Then the anti-power rate hike groups will rally in the streets, go to Congress and Supreme Court, go to mainstream media, facebook and twitter, to oppose any power rate hike.

These windmills in Bangui, Ilocos Norte, 20 of them, are famous. They are often posted in fb and other social media. They have an installed capacity of 33 MW. But since wind plants have capacity delivery of only around 20 percent of their installed capacity on average, these wind plants can deliver only around 6 MW on average. (Photo credit, my good friend Jun Concepcion)

See the windmills, there are no houses and fishing village, no beach resorts either, no other business enterprises. This is because some of those wind towers can fall down someday, or the blades can overheat and also fall down. Hence, dangerous to people and structures.

But don't those wind plants bring down the cost of electricity in the country? No. On the contrary, they contribute to expensive electricity because of the feed in tariff (FIT) that they are entitled to, courtesy of the Renewable Energy (RE) Act of 2008. The FIT for wind power is P8.53/kwh, and for solar, P9.68/kwh. FIT is add-on charge to existing generation charge. So if average generation charge for the month is P5/kwh + FIT of P8.53 = P13.83/kwh. Electricity consumers, residential or commercial or industrial, will bear this burden.

See also: 
The Renewable Energy (RE) law, February 18, 2011

Thursday, April 10, 2014

ASEAN Tax Reform Initiative

Last October 22, 2013, I and some Asian friends in the free market network met with our friends at the Americans for Tax Reforms (ATR), after EFN Asia 2014 Conference ended in Bangkok. The meeting was held in another hotel not far from the venue of the EFN Conference.

From left, standing: Lorenzo Montanari of ATR, guy from Vietnam, me, Feng Xingyuan of Unirule Institute (China), Wan Saiful Wan Jan and Tricia Yeoh of IDEAS (Malaysia), Barun Mitra of Liberty Institute (India).

Sitting from left: Roman Dannug of DLSU (Philippines), Peter Wong of Lion Rock Institute (HK), Mao Shoulong of Renmin Univ. (China), Chris Butler of ATR. I forget the names of the other three on the right, sorry. Photo from IDEAS.

It was an exploratory meeting how we can possibly put up a regional think tank focused on tax issues -- campaign to have low, simple taxes among countries in the ASEAN region and other Asian economies.

Good initiative, but we have not done any serious project yet after that meeting. When the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) will materialize by January 2016, lots of "harmonization" of policies will happen among the 10 member-countries of the association. This project then should have some bones and skin then after this exploratory meeting.

Meanwhile, I got this poem last October from the Bastiat Institute facebook page. Cool, reposting it.

Tax his land, Tax his bed,
Tax the table, At which he's fed.

Tax his tractor, Tax his mule,
Teach him taxes, Are the rule.

Tax his work, Tax his pay,
He works for peanuts anyway!

Tax his cow, Tax his goat,
Tax his pants, Tax his coat.

Tax his ties, Tax his shirt,
Tax his work, Tax his dirt.

Tax his tobacco, Tax his drink,
Tax him if he Tries to think.

Tax his cigars, Tax his beers,
If he cries Tax his tears.

Tax his car, Tax his gas,
Find other ways To tax his ass.

Tax all he has Then let him know
That you won't be done Till he has no dough.

When he screams and hollers; Then tax him some more,
Tax him till He's good and sore.

Then tax his coffin, Tax his grave,
Tax the sod in Which he's laid...

Put these words Upon his tomb,
'Taxes drove me to my doom...'

When he's gone,
Do not relax,
Its time to apply
The inheritance tax
Accounts Receivable Tax
Building Permit Tax
CDL license Tax
Cigarette Tax
Corporate Income Tax
Dog License Tax
Excise Taxes
Federal Income Tax
Federal Unemployment Tax (FUTA)
Fishing License Tax
Food License Tax
Fuel Permit Tax
Gasoline Tax (currently 44.75 cents per gallon)
Gross Receipts Tax
Hunting License Tax
Inheritance Tax
Inventory Tax
IRS Interest Charges IRS Penalties (tax on top of tax)
Liquor Tax
Luxury Taxes
Marriage License Tax
Medicare Tax
Personal Property Tax
Property Tax
Real Estate Tax
Service Charge Tax
Social Security Tax
Road Usage Tax
Recreational Vehicle Tax
Sales Tax
School Tax
State Income Tax
State Unemployment Tax (SUTA)
Telephone Federal Excise Tax
Telephone Federal Universal Service Fee Tax
Telephone Federal, State and Local Surcharge Taxes
Telephone Minimum Usage Surcharge Tax
Telephone Recurring and Nonrecurring Charges Tax
Telephone State and Local Tax
Telephone Usage Charge Tax
Utility Taxes
Vehicle License Registration Tax
Vehicle Sales Tax
Watercraft Registration Tax
Well Permit Tax
Workers Compensation Tax

See also:
Abolish Income Tax 6: Income tax and VAT trade-off, February 08, 2010
Abolish Income Tax 7: Rene Azurin, Peter Wallace, John Mangun, August 19, 2011 

Abolish Income Tax 8. From low flat tax to zero income tax, September 30, 2011 

Abolish Income Tax 9: Tax Revolt Against Government Corruption, September 29, 2013

Airline Competition 2: More PH Flights to the US and Europe

Today, the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has granted a Category 1 rating to the Philippines for its compliance with international safety standards set by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). This means that Philippines’ air carriers can add flights and service to the US and carry the code of U.S. carriers. Good news.

A friend, Coco Alcuaz made this timeline in his fb posting today: 

US FAA lifts ban on PH, allowing PAL to add flights, Cebu Pac to start. Cebu Pac also due to get EU approval tonight. Here's a history: 
1998 Philippine Airlines ends flights to EuropeJan. 2008 U.S. FAA downgrades PH to Category 2 (no new flights)March 2010 EU bans all PH carriersJuly 2013 EU lifts ban on Philippine Airlines (PAL)Oct. 2013 Cebu Pacific starts first long-haul flight (Dubai)Nov. 2013 PAL starts flights to LondonToday FAA restores PH to Category 1Later today EU expected to lift ban on Cebu Pac

This move by the FAA is consistent with the US government's more liberal granting of US visa to PH citizens. The US government wants more rich and middle class Filipinos to go to the US and spend money there, help improve business confidence. If more Filipino travelers are prevented from going to the US by denying them entry visa, these Filipinos will simply go to Europe or other Asian countries and spend their money there. 

Hours after the FAA announcement, the EU in Brussels also announced that it has cleared Cebu Pacific to fly to European air space.

Many people here welcomed this development positively. And rightly so because of the huge new business opportunities that will be opened, especially in tourism, trade and investment.

More competition among more airlines flying PH-US and PH-EU would also mean lower fares, better service. Bad service and/or high fare by one airline will turn off passengers and buy their tickets for their next flight with another airline.

See also: 
Airline Competition 1: Standing Room Flights, July 05, 2010 
Airline oligopoly, Philippine AirLines, September 16, 2011

Wednesday, April 09, 2014

Pork Barrel 9: Are PH Government Institutions Ready for Cleansing?

A friend, Vince Lazatin, convenor of the Transparency and Accountability Network (TAN), posted some provocative questions in his fb wall yesterday. Vince asked,
Are our government institutions ready to handle the PDAF cases against some of the country's most powerful personalities? Are our government lawyers up to the task of facing the most expensive defense attorneys that money can buy? Will the chips be allowed to fall where they may?  
These PDAF cases will put everyone to the test, including non-government actors such as the media, the citizens, and NGOs/CSOs. There will be people who will rise as beacons of hope, while others will spiral into a vortex of infamy.
People, are we ready to see this to the very end? Or will we recede into the anonymity of our daily lives and concede the future of this country to apathy and indifference? Our future rests squarely in what we are willing to accept and what we are willing to fight for.

In short, are Philippine government institutions and the public ready for social and political cleansing? Good and direct question, but I doubt if people are ready to hear the likely answers to those questions.

Are our government institutions ready to handle the PDAF cases against some of the country's most powerful personalities?

Are our government lawyers up to the task of facing the most expensive defense attorneys that money can buy?

Will the chips be allowed to fall where they may?

People, are we ready to see this to the very end?

All stealing by some (or many) legislators will not be possible without the participation of all Executive agencies where the money is supposed to be spent. Also with participation by some (or many) COA auditors as this crime has been happening not just a few years ago, but several decades ago.

Many in the public themselves -- NGOs, CSOs, people's organizations (POs), media, consultants -- are indirect beneficiaries of this crime. Some or many of them were the conduits, or the "I see nothing wrong in exchange for money", of this large-scale money laundering and plunder.

I suggested a campaign for a back to P2 trillion budget. It’s nearly P2.3 trillion this year, and likely to reach P2.6 trillion next year. There is no reason to keep the budget rising by around P300 billion a year and borrowing the same amount yearly, while the public debt stock keep rising by P400-450 billion a year, even if many of this money is wasted, if not outrightly stolen.

See also:

Rule of Law 22: IAF Seminar in Germany

The Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom (FNF) is calling for nomination and participants to this seminar, deadline of application on April 11, this Friday.

Target participants for this seminar are young politicians, journalists, civil society activists and academics. 

The application and elimination process before one can be accepted to the actual seminar in Gummersbach (near Cologne), Germany is two-stage. First, FNF Philippine Office will shortlist from among the many applicants, get only about five or so, and the selected ones will participate in an online discussion involving perhaps a hundred people from different countries and continents, to be moderated by German liberal facilitators. After about three weeks of online discussion, the facilitators will choose only 24. These guys will travel to Germany for a one-week intensive (morning till evening sometimes) seminar, including a field trip to Cologne, visit several offices and political leaders there. At least that's how it was done six years ago. I think it's the same process until now.

During the online discussion, the participants are from Asia, Africa, S. America and E. Europe. It is a good learning process itself, so that even if one is not accepted in the actual seminar in Germany, one has learned a lot already from the reading materials given by the facilitators, and from the actual discourse with fellow participants.

I attended the seminar on "Local Government and Civil Society" in October 2008. I was lucky to be admitted to the actual seminar in Gummersbach, 8 days including 1-day field trip in Cologne. There are participants from all 4 continents. The Latinos could not speak English, there is a translator (English-Spanish) throughout the course. My experience in that seminar with photos,

Stefan Melnik, a former FNF officer, suggested that good introductions to the concept of rule of law and its necessity are (1) Hayek's The Constitution of Liberty, and( 2) Tom Bingham's Rule of Law.

It's a good suggestion. Here is a portion of what Hayek wrote about the rule of law:

Law in its ideal form might be described as a ‘once-and-for-all’ command that is directed to unknown people and that is abstracted from all particular circumstances of time and place and refers only to such conditions as may occur anywhere and at any time…. “By ‘law’ we mean the general rules that apply equally to everybody… As a true law should not name any particulars, so it should especially not single out any specific persons or group of persons. -- F. Hayek, Chapter 10, "Law, Commands and Order", The Constitution of Liberty (1960). See: Hayek 7: Rule of law means no exception.

There is a suggestion that the PNoy government has violated the rule of law in the impeachment of former SC Chief Justice Renato Corona.

I think ALL government administrations in the PH, many other countries, selectively violate the rule of law. "general rules that apply equally to everybody", no one is exempted and no one can grant an exemption. Stealing is stealing, whether the theft is the King or President or Prime Minister or the Mayor or the poorest man on Earth. The fact that stealing and plunder happening in all administrations means that in most cases, rule of men, not rule of law, is the norm.

Stefan further suggested that “the FNF focuses on the term rule of law as internationally understood- because the term Rechtsstaat has a slightly broader meaning. To use the latter in a foreign domestic context would confuse people, given the legal environments in which they live. Briefly, the German concept includes basic rights whereas "rule of law" implies and protects such rights but does not include them. For instance, equality under the law implies a right to equal treatment and demands that this is what the legal system does.”

See also: 
Rule of Law 18: Damaso and Carlos Celdran Conviction, February 04, 2013 
Rule of Law 19: How to Strengthen RoL?, March 25, 2013
Rule of Law 20: PNP and Rule of Men, April 21, 2013 

Rule of Law 21: Violating Simple Parking Rules, September 17, 2013