As the world population increases, the number of countries should also expand. As people modernize and globalize, differentiation and specialization expand. But governments of each country always want to uniformize and standardize people and their behavior.
Small population countries and economies like Hong Kong, Singapore, Brunei, Luxembourg, New Zealand, etc. become more dynamic, more flexible for their citizens. Losing their people via migration is getting easier, so they need to remain competitive and attractive to keep their people, attract other migrants to replace their citizens who have left for other countries.
Candidate countries that are too huge, too bureaucratic to force uniformity and standardization of their people and therefore, need to disintegrate into many smaller countries are China, India, Russia, USA, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines.
The case of large-scale refugees and migration problem from a number of countries (Syria, Iraq, Bangladesh, Myanmar, etc.) is another compelling reason why more, new countries should be created, or be allowed to exist.
In the 90s, many new countries were created. When the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) disintegrated in 1991, 15 new countries including the current Russia, were created. (Image source, wikipedia).
Disintegration of huge, bureaucratic, countries into many, smaller countries is the only way to allow and respect specific ethnic and cultural differentiation.
Former Yugoslavia also disintegrated in the early 90s into five independent countries. (Image also from wiki)
China in particular should disintegrate and allow the formation of new countries like Hong Kong, Macau, Tibet, Uigur region, etc.
USA too, allow states and territories like Alaska, Hawaii, Saipan, Guam, to become separate countries. Other states in the union may consider declaring their own country too.
From WW2 up to the present, there were more disintegration and secession than consolidation of countries. Like the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh out of original India, creation of Singapore from Malaysia, creation of East Timor from Indonesia, the 15 countries out of USSR and 5 countries out of Yugoslavia discussed above, creation of N. and S. Korea out of original Korea, etc.
On the other hand, here are the reconsolidated and merged countries into one:
1. E. and W. Germany became unified Germany, October 1990
2. N. and S. Yemen merged to form a unified Yemen, May 1990
Other New Countries
This post is shared by a friend Edison, the source/link was not provided:
1. March 21, 1990 - Namibia became independent of South Africa.
2. September 17, 1991 - The Marshall Islands was part of the Trust Territory of Pacific Islands (administered by the United States) and gained independence as a former colony.
3. September 17, 1991 - Micronesia, previously known as the Caroline Islands, became independent from the United States.
4. January 1, 1993 - The Czech Republic and Slovakia became independent nations when Czechoslovakia dissolved.
5. May 25, 1993 - Eritrea was a part of Ethiopia but seceded and gained independence.
6. October 1, 1994 - Palau was part of the Trust Territory of Pacific Islands (administered by the United States) and gained independence as a former colony.
7. May 20, 2002 - East Timor (Timor-Leste) declared independence from Portugal in 1975 but did not became independent from Indonesia until 2002.
8. June 3, 2006 - Montenegro was part of Serbia and Montenegro (also known as Yugoslavia) but gained independence after a referendum.
9. June 5, 2006 - Serbia became its own entity after Montenegro split.
February 17, 2008 - Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia.
10. July 9, 2011 - South Sudan peacefully seceded from Sudan following a January 2011 referendum. Sudan itself was the first to recognized South Sudan on July 8, 2011.
11. World's newest country, the The Kingdom of Enclava, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/.../Introducing-world-s-newest...
As humanity modernizes and globalizes, they develop new traits and characteristics, differentiation among people expands, and people want their differentiation and new identities to be respected. Huge countries generally disrespect those differentiation, there are thousands of laws and regulations that force standardization, nationalization and uniformity.
Differentiation means people having different social and econ outlook in life. Like the Kazakhs and Uzbeks who did not want to be part of Moscow bureaucratism anymore. Or Singaporeans who did not want to be part of Kuala Lumpur administration anymore. I read that Sabah, Penang and other states in Malaysia also want to follow Singapore in a future secession move.
If Singapore did not secede from Malaysia, its corporate and personal income taxes would be around 25-30%, not 17%. Things like more leeway re what kind of taxes, tax rates, what kind of public spending, system of reward and punishment in public finance, and so on.
On the Koreas, I think N. Korea will collapse soon, aided indirectly or unintentionally by Chinese smugglers who bring in new mobile phones, laptops, other gadgets. N. and S. Korea will be reunited and consolidated, like Germany. But secession aspirations will come from Jeju and other island-states of Korea. I've been to Jeju island, small in the map but huge when you're there. It has almost everything -- beaches and fishing, lowland agri and highlands, mountains and volcanoes. Plus the physical infra like international airport, road network, huge hotels, commercial and industrial zones, etc.
Normally, governments of the mother country would fight tooth and nail, kill as many as possible, to prevent secession. It happened in East Timor. Legislators and Cabinet officials, say DA or DPWH or DepEd officials and bureaucrats for instance, are happy that their powers extend from Aparri to Jolo, or DOF/BIR officials are happy that they can collect various taxes from Aparri to Jolo. It is precisely those central planners and legislators from Manila and other capital cities that disallow flexibilities of the other islands, especially island-provinces and regions.
Here are some small countries (left) and Philippine islands (middle and right), land area in sq.kms. Any of these island-provinces and regions are potential new countries in the future.
Smaller countries' governments would tend to be less populist and welfarist, and would focus on the main function of government -- to enforce the rule of law, protect private property and citizens' right to life against bullies and aggressors, right to self expression.-----------
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